The Hunterian in Glasgow – A Veritable Cabinet of Curiosities

Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

In June 2017, I was super-excited to get the chance to visit the Hunterian Museum during my trip to Glasgow.  To visit a collection that has such an old basis is pretty cool – plus they have Roman remains, which is always a draw for me.

The Hunterian is less one museum than a group of permanent galleries which show off a selection of items from their collection.  The museum I visited is the main one, which has sections on William Hunter, the Antonine Wall, medicine, Lord Kelvin and then an eclectic gallery of palaeontology, numismatics, zoology, ethnography and geography.

However, the Hunterian also has its own Art Gallery, Zoology Museum, Anatomy Museum and a micro-museum looking at country surgeons – all at other sites on campus.  And it also looks after the Mackintosh House.

The entrance to the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The entrance to the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

William Hunter

William Hunter was born in 1718 into a middle class Glaswegian family.  At the age of 13 he enrolled at the University of Glasgow to study for a Master of Arts degree, with the intention of having a career in the church.  During his time at University, he was taught by important figures in the Scottish Enlightenment, including Francis Hutcheson, who made Hunter realise that he was not destined for a life in the church.  As the Professor of Moral Philosophy, Hutcheson expounded the importance of awakening in each student “a taste for literature, fine arts and everything that is ornamental and useful in human life” which would lead him to “spread such an ardour for knowledge and such a spirit of enquiry everywhere around him”.  Well, the professor was successful with at least one student.

Hunter left the University at 19 without a degree.  He went to Edinburgh to study medicine under the influential William Cullen in 1737.  He subsequently went to London and became a resident pupil to William Smellie and trained in anatomy at St George’s Hospital, specialising in obstetrics.  His good manners and sensitivity led to him becoming the leading obstetric consultant in the city  – he became physician to Queen Charlotte and oversaw the delivery of all 14 of her children – and honestly, since he didn’t like the use of forceps in delivery, I think I’d have loved him too.

In 1768, he built the anatomy theatre in Great Windmill Street in Soho which became the centre of learning for the surgeons and anatomists of the period.  But that wasn’t all – he was a Fellow of the Royal Society from 1767 and Professor of Anatomy to the Royal Academy from 1768.  At the Academy he lectured on anatomy, in connection with their life classes, but concentrated on the importance of the artists’ link to nature.

But Hunter was interested in the world in general.  As well as his intriguing medical collection, he was able, with his royal and aristocratic connections, to get his hands on coins, minerals, paintings and prints, ethnographic materials, books and manuscripts, insects and other biological specimens.  When Hunter died in 1783, aged 64, he bequeathed these collections to the University of Glasgow and this formed the eclectic core of the Hunterian.  In 1807, a specially constructed building to house the museum went up by the original campus of the university.  When the university moved to the new site, the museum also moved, and in 1870 the collections were transferred to the Sir George Gilbert Scott building that it’s in today.

The Antonine Wall Gallery

If the Roman Emperor Hadrian is remembered for anything in the modern world, it’s for building a wall.  He should be remembered for starting the trend of having a beard, but history has a way of fixating on the least interesting aspect of a man’s life.

What is less well known is the fact that Hadrian’s successor, Antoninus Pius, also had a very nice beard.  And he built a wall.  In Britain.  In AD 142, possibly in reaction to the threat from the Caledonians, the Emperor decided to extend the Roman frontier further north.  Taking inspiration from Hadrian’s little venture, the new wall ran from coast to coast, from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth.

View of the Antonine Wall Gallery in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

View of the Antonine Wall Gallery in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

While it was a relatively simple turf and wooden structure  – as opposed to the stone used in the south – it took 12 years to finish.  There were 16 forts along the wall, and many of the inscriptions in the gallery celebrate the amount of the wall that was built by the legions who were involved.  Eight years after they finished it, the wall was abandoned.  In 208, however, the Emperor Septimius Severus ordered for it to be repaired – but within a few years the site was abandoned again.  The impermanence of the structure meant that it didn’t survive the harsh weather, and the usual ravages of time also helped to dispose of most of the remains.  But some objects survived, and they give a really interesting insight into how the Romans stayed Roman, even when they were in the middle of nowhere.

If you want to find out more about what currently remains of the wall, and read information on finds, suggested walks etc, then it’s worth looking at its own site: www.antoninewall.org 

Anyway, back to the collection at the Hunterian.  Let’s start with an interesting stone marking the distance of the section of the wall that the XXth Legion built.  The central figure shows Victory holding a laurel wreath and reclining on a globe, rather than standing as you’d expect.  This has led to the speculation that Victory is referencing a river god – possibly the nearby River Clyde.  The boar at the bottom is the emblem of the Legion.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX V V FED PP IIII CDXI - For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the XXth Valiant and Victorious Legion built [this] over a distance of 4411 feet.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX V V FED PP IIII CDXI – For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the XXth Valiant and Victorious Legion built [this] over a distance of 4411 feet.

The marker below is quite fun – it’s got two little winged Victories holding up the inscription.  On the left is a dainty Mars, on the right is a female personification of Imperial Valour holding a standard and sword.

Distance marker of the VIth Legion, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AELIO HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG P P VEX LEG VI VICTRICS P F OPVS VALLI P MMM CCXL F - For the Emperor... father of his country, a detachment of the Sixth Victorious, Loyal and Fathful Legion built the work of the wall over a distance of 3240 feet. On the standard it says "valour of the Emperor". 

Distance marker of the VIth Legion, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AELIO HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG P P VEX LEG VI VICTRICS P F OPVS VALLI P MMM CCXL F – For the Emperor… father of his country, a detachment of the Sixth Victorious, Loyal and Fathful Legion built the work of the wall over a distance of 3240 feet. On the standard it says “valour of the Emperor”.

Detail from the Distance marker of the VIth Legion, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Detail from the Distance marker of the VIth Legion, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The central female in the next stone is probably Britannia, shown giving a miniature wreath to the eagle on top of the legionary standard that is being presented by a soldier. On either side are bound and naked captives and beneath it is the boar emblem of the 20th Legion.  The composition of this one is really interesting, as it comes across as one of the most classical in the gallery – not least because of the architectural elements that are used to frame the figures.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO PP VEX LEG XXVV FED PP III For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the XXth Valiant and Victorius Legion built [this] over a distance of 3000 feet.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO PP VEX LEG XXVV FED PP III For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the XXth Valiant and Victorius Legion built [this] over a distance of 3000 feet.

This marker shows two scenes of captive barbarians – on the left, Victory crowns a horseman who is pointing a spear at two bound prisoners.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP CAES TITO AELIO HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P LEG II AVG PEP M P IIIDC LXVIS For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, the IInd Augustan Legion built [this] over a distance of 36666 1/2 paces.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  It reads: IMP CAES TITO AELIO HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P LEG II AVG PEP M P IIIDC LXVIS For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, the IInd Augustan Legion built [this] over a distance of 36666 1/2 paces.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  Thought to be by the XXth Legion based on engraving style. The of a Triton is unusual so far inland.

Distance marker, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  Thought to be by the XXth Legion based on engraving style. The depiction of a Triton is unusual so far inland.

The inscriptions really stress the victory of the Romans over the barbarians.  The images are of a generic style, used for barbarian tribes of all types – in this way they follow the form that was well established in Roman art.

Stone relief showing Fortuna, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  This was found in a bath-house.  Fortuna is shown holding a horn of plenty (cornucopia) and a rudder resting on a spoked wheel.

Stone relief showing Fortuna, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  This was found in a bath-house.  Fortuna is shown holding a horn of plenty (cornucopia) and a rudder resting on a spoked wheel.

Funerary monument, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  The deceased is reclining on a couch, probably with a dog.  Such scenes were popular with soldiers.

Funerary monument, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  The deceased is reclining on a couch, probably with a dog.  Such scenes were popular with soldiers.

Fountainhead, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  The head is rendered in a native Celtic style - it was found in a bath-house.

Fountainhead, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  The head is rendered in a native Celtic style – it was found in a bath-house.

The Urbicus Inscription, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  This fragment of stone is one of the most important in the country because it names Urbicus, the Governor of Britain from AD 138/9- AD 143.  This established for certain that these remains were of the Antonine Wall.

The Urbicus Inscription, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  This fragment of stone is one of the most important in the country because it names Urbicus, the Governor of Britain from AD 138/9- AD 143.  This established for certain that these remains were of the Antonine Wall.

Roman torso, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Roman torso, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Weight for cheese press, lead, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Weight for cheese press, lead, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Wooden Barrel, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  There is a central bunghole, and the name IANVARIUS (Januarius) is inscribed on one stave.

Wooden Barrel, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  There is a central bunghole, and the name IANVARIUS (Januarius) is inscribed on one stave.

Clay fragment of 'face mask' funerary jar, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Clay fragment of ‘face mask’ funerary jar, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Leather shoes for a man, woman and child, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Leather shoes for a man, woman and child, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Window glass and iron grille, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  From a headquarters building.  Glass was found at all the forts on the Antonine Wall which have been excavated, but the iron window grille is a rarity.

Window glass and iron grille, 2nd century AD, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  From a headquarters building.  Glass was found at all the forts on the Antonine Wall which have been excavated, but the iron window grille is a rarity.

Drain cover from the cold room of the bath-house at Bothwellhaugh Fort, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Drain cover from the cold room of the bath-house at Bothwellhaugh Fort, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The Main Gallery

The main gallery of the Hunterian is full of wonderfully eclectic objects that have been collected and donated since Hunter’s initial bequest.  The gallery is like a miniature version of the main hall at the Edinburgh National Museum, with its channelling of late Victorian industrial architecture.

The main gallery of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The main gallery of the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

You know your visit is going to be full of surprises as soon as you walk in and see this guy:

Plesiosaur in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Plesiosaur in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

He is a fossilised Plesiosaur (Cryptoclidus Eurymerus). He would have lived in the sea during the Middle Jurassic Period (160 million years ago).  Plesiosaurs ate cephalopods (like ammonites) and small fish, and became the dominant marine reptile of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.  This chap was excavated at the beginning of the 20th century from a clay pit near Peterborough.

Plesiosaur in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Plesiosaur in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

And he’s been laughing ever since.

There are some interesting ancient objects on show, but the highlight was seeing some Egyptian make-up.

Egyptian make-up, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  No. 28, ground stibnite, one of the ingredients of kohl. No. 29, malachite, a green mineral pigment.

Egyptian make-up, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  No. 28, ground stibnite, one of the ingredients of kohl. No. 29, malachite, a green mineral pigment.

There is then a varied and fascinating ethnographic collection.  It’s always interesting to see works from places where cultures collide, and in their very different ways the following four objects show the social and artistic impact that Europeans had on various cultures they encountered around the world.

Model canoe with six figures by Thomas Ona Odulate, early-mid 20th century, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  As described on the tag, he was a noted Yoruba carver mainly producing representations of Europeans in Lagos, Nigeria.

Model canoe with six figures by Thomas Ona Odulate, early-mid 20th century, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  As described on the tag, he was a noted Yoruba carver mainly producing representations of Europeans in Lagos, Nigeria.

District officer reclining in a chair, and a figure of a clergyman, by Thomas Ona Odulate, early-mid 20th century, Lagos, Nigeria, in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

District officer reclining in a chair, and a figure of a clergyman, by Thomas Ona Odulate, early-mid 20th century, Lagos, Nigeria, in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

This rather striking coat below looks, from a distance, like a fairly typical 18th century affair, though it is anything but.  It is a painted coat, by the Native American Innu people who inhabited an area that is now northern Quebec and part of Labrador.  The Innu traded their goods, mainly furs, with Europeans and in return got guns, beads and blankets.  The Innu adopted European style clothing and this coat one was made to honour the spirit of the caribou when out hunting – so it’s a new clothing style adapted to meet ancient practices.  These coats have an extra back panel to add fullness, which isn’t present in European frock coats.  The Innu coat panels signify the mountains where the Lord of the Caribou lives. The coats were made with designs that match older painted hides which were displayed to the sun every dawn.  Innu people still wear new clothing for the annual caribou hunt, to honour the caribou spirits.

Painted coat of the Innu People, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Painted coat of the Innu People, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The next object looks at the world as seen by the Portuguese, interpreted for a Chinese audience.  It is a map prepared for the Chinese Emperor Kangxi in 1674 by the Jesuit missionary, Ferdinand Verbiest.  Verbiest was one of a handful of Jesuits who were employed in the Chinese court during the 17th and 18th centuries, and introduced some aspects of Western science.  This copy was actually in William Hunter’s original collection and is one of the earliest known examples of this map to reach Europe.

Part of the woodblock world map made for Chinese Emperor Kangxi, Ferdinand Verbiest, 1674, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Part of the woodblock world map made for Chinese Emperor Kangxi, Ferdinand Verbiest, 1674, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Bottom part of the woodblock world map for Chinese Emperor Kangxi, Ferdinand Verbiest, 1674, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Bottom part of the woodblock world map for Chinese Emperor Kangxi, Ferdinand Verbiest, 1674, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

This next exhibit is rather more random.  It is of a magpie and its very unique nest.   Magpies build nests with any suitable materials they can find. This bird used the metal ties from a nearby building site and incorporated barbed wire and old coat hangers as well.  Although magpies are known to be impressive nest builders, this shows that they are not only very strong and skilful, but also extremely adaptable.

Metallic Magpie Nest, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Metallic Magpie Nest, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Moving on to more mainstream objects, this coin of Cleopatra VII (known to most as the only Cleopatra) is deemed by the museum to be “the best example in the world” of her coins.  I don’t know if that’s true, but it’s an attractive piece.

Cleopatra coin, 1st century BC, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Cleopatra coin, 1st century BC, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

The next three objects are dinosaur related – the first may ‘just’ be toys, but the other two are pretty amazing.

Dinosaur models, Vernon Edwards, 1920s, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  Souvenirs from a trip to the Natural History Museum in London, somewhat superior to the green rubber diplodocus that Sister-Chickpea cherished from her visit in the late 1970s.  These nine are believed to comprise the only complete set that's survived.

Dinosaur models, Vernon Edwards, 1920s, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  Souvenirs from a trip to the Natural History Museum in London, somewhat superior to the green rubber diplodocus that Sister-Chickpea cherished from her visit in the late 1970s.  These nine are believed to comprise the only complete set that’s survived.

Little dinosaur models, Vernon Edwards, 1920s, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  

Little dinosaur models, Vernon Edwards, 1920s, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.

Dinosaur skin, Cretaceous Period (140 million- 66 million years ago). Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  A rib is poking through the skin impression of the hadrosaur, a type of 'duck-billed' dinosaur.

Dinosaur skin, Cretaceous Period (140 million- 66 million years ago). Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.  A rib is poking through the skin impression of the hadrosaur, a type of ‘duck-billed’ dinosaur.

Upstairs

In the upstairs balcony, the gallery is divided into two sections.  One deals with Lord Kelvin, whose association with the University of Glasgow began in childhood and was fully established when he returned as a professor in his early 20s.  There are objects related to Kelvin’s work as a scientist whose major contribution was in the field of thermodynamics.  The second part of the gallery looks at the role of medicine in Glasgow, highlighting some of the really cool and important contributions that have been made by the city to this field of study.  However.  I am quite squeamish.  I saw some dried and pickled objects too early on, which made me feel a bit…  so I quickly lost interest in the rest of the collection, though my companions were fascinated by it.  I think we can safely say there were some interesting medical bits and pieces – for those with the stomach for such things.

View of the gallery on Lord Kelvin in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

View of the gallery on Lord Kelvin in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

View of the attractive quad from the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

View of the attractive quad from the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Obstetrical training doll, and forceps, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Obstetrical training doll, and forceps, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Glass sponge, or Venus' flower basket, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Glass sponge, or Venus’ flower basket, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

(If you want to find out more about these amazing sponges, you can have a quick look at my entry on the Dubrovnik Natural History Museum.)

Bandage winding equipment, 20th century, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Bandage winding equipment, 20th century, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

Woah – that was a truly bland selection of items I just showed you from that gallery.  But there was plenty of stomach-churning stuff for those who want their stomachs churned which you can discover for yourselves.

View of the upper and lower galleries at the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland

View of the upper and lower galleries at the Hunterian, Glasgow, Scotland

So In Summary

The exhibits are very well presented, although it is a shame there wasn’t more on display – actually, the museum space was quite a bit smaller than I’d expected.  However, the eclectic mix of objects made it fun to explore, because honestly you didn’t know what was going to be around the corner.  Because of this, the Hunterian probably has something of interest for everyone – and that is the mark of a good museum.

Further Information

For all the usual information about exhibitions and opening times etc, the museum has its own neat though not massively educational website:  www.gla.ac.uk/hunterian

There is also a facility to search the collection – it works best if you’re looking for something specific, rather than browsing: www.huntsearch.gla.ac.uk

The museum hold regular exhibitions and talks, so you might want to check their events calendar to see if you can time your visit with something fun!

How to Get There

Local transport information is available here:  www.spt.co.uk while information on how to get to Glasgow via train is available via: www.thetrainline.com 

The Hunterian Museum is part of the University of Glasgow and you end up walking through quite a bit of the university to get to the museum.  Since this part was designed by the Gothic revivalist, Gilbert Scott, it feels very Victorian and imposing – for me, it’s what a university should look like, which adds to the experience and underlines the continuing importance of this collection for research and study.

 

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